Wednesday, March 23, 2016

RESPONS PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL JAGUNG (Zea mays L) terhadap Unsur Hara Kalium


Jagung (Zea mays L) merupakan tanaman dengan jalur fotosintetik C4 sehingga laju pertumbuhan potensialnya tinggi. Hasil biji maksimum bisa mencapai 12 t ha-1. Namun demikian, pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung sangat dipengaruhi oleh keadaan iklim dan suplai unsur hara (Fageria, Baligar, dan Charles Allan Jones, 1990).
Salah satu unsur hara yang penting untuk mendukung pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung adalah kalium (Wihardjaka, Harsanti, dan Suprapto, 2000).
Kalium merupakan salah satu unsur hara essensial selain nitrogen dan fosfor yang diambil tanaman dalam jumlah yang banyak (Lilik Agustina, 1990). Kalium berpengaruh terhadap respirasi dan transpirasi, mendorong sintesis dan translokasi karbohidrat (Fitzpatrick, 1986). Peran utama dari kalium adalah sebagai pengaktif beberapa enzim seperti aldolase dan piruvat kinase (Lilik Agustina, 1990).

Ketersediaan Kalium

Ketersediaan kalium sangat dipengaruhi oleh dan bahan organik dalam tanah (Soemarno, 1993). Faktor lain yang juga mempengaruhi adalah iklim dalam hal ini curah hujan (Foth dan Ellis, 1988). Pemberian pupuk kandang adalah salah satu cara untuk dapat meningkatkan bahan organik tanah. Di samping itu pupuk kandang dapat menjadi sumber hara dan meningkatkan daya menahan air, sehingga dapat lebih meningkatkan ketersediaan kalium dalam tanah (Saifuddin, 1985).
Batas kritis kekurangan hara kalium di dalam tanah untuk tanaman jagung adalah 0,30 me 100 g-1 tanah atau 234 kg ha-1 (Fathan, Ratna, Rahardjo, dan Makarim, 1988). Kekurangan kalium pada tanaman jagung berakibat mengeringnya ujung daun bagian bawah yang kemudian menjalar ke bagian pinggir daun dan mati. Jagung yang kekurangan kalium masih mampu berbuah tetapi tongkol yang dihasilkan kecil dan ujungnya meruncing (Rony Palungkun dan Asiani Budiarti, 1991). Kekurangan kalium mengakibatkan turunnya kualitas biji yang ditandai dengan mengecilnya ukuran biji, sehingga akan menurunkan berat biji kering per ha (Forster dan Bringer dalam Maemunah dan Iskandar, 2002).
Diduga Curah Hujan akan berpengaruh terhadap ketersediaan kalium dalam tanah. Pupuk kalium yang diberikan ke dalam tanah akan bergerak kepermukaan liat menjadi bentuk yang terikat sehingga untuk sementara kalium menjadi bentuk lambat tersedia bagi tanaman sebelum akhirnya dibebaskan menjadi bentuk dapat dipertukarkan dan selanjutnya kedalam bentuk larutan tanah. Manakala kalium dibebaskan menjadi bentuk dapat dipertukarkan dan dalam bentuk larutan tanah, maka resiko terhadap pencucian menjadi tinggi. Akibatnya kalium akan mudah hilang tercuci. Kehilangan ini akan dipercepat apabila intensitas curah hujan tinggi (Foth dan Ellis, 1988). Kondisi ini diduga mengakibatkan tidak responnya pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman jagung terhadap kalium. Kekurangan kalium menyebabkan seluruh proses metabolisme terganggu sehingga produksi menurun. Kalium mampu meningkatkan kerapatan butir, ukuran tongkol, dan meningkatkan keseragaman masaknya (Odjak dalam Wihardjaka, et al., 2000).
Kelebihan kalium dapat mengakibatkan penurunan hasil tanaman jagung. Tanaman akan menyerap kalium lebih banyak dari pada yang diperlukan untuk hasil maksimum (Foth dan Ellis, 1988).

Pengambilan Kalium Oleh Tanaman Jagung

Respon pertumbuhan jagung terhadap pemupukan kalium tampak pada saat tanaman berumur antara ± 30 sampai 60 hari setelah tanam dan pada saat pembentukan biji pada umur ± 70 hari setelah tanam sampai menjelang panen (Robert, 1975). Kalium diambil tanaman dalam bentuk ion K+ (Soegiman, 1982; Fageria, et al., 1990). Kalium diambil tanaman jagung lebih banyak dengan cara difusi. Total pengambilan secara difusi mencapai 78%, melalui intersepsi akar 2% dan melalui aliran massa 20% (Foth dan Ellis, 1988). Kalium yang diambil oleh tanaman jagung maksimum 8 -10 kg ha-1 per hari (Foth dan Ellis, 1988). Diperkirakan sebanyak 3 kg kalium yang diambil dari dalam tanah untuk setiap 1 ton biji jagung (Fageria, et al., 1990). Dari hasil penelitian Karlen (1988) diketahui bahwa total akumulasi kalium pada saat panen diperkirakan 1,2% dari total berat kering (Fageria, et al., 1990).

Fungsi Kalium Terhadap Tanaman Jagung...

Selengkapnya silahkan DOWNLOAD DI SINI

15 comments:

  1. The pills increase the stamina and Alpha Force Testo preference in addition to mind strength to beautify brain frame manage. Drawbacks of steroids or synthetic testosterone: Steroids are given to elevate the extent of testosterone, that.For more ==== >>>>>> http://t-rexmuscleadvice.com/alpha-force-testo/

    ReplyDelete
  2. With each pause of breath, it's going to generally remaining up to 20 seconds or extra. these pauses can occur twenty to Iron Bull Edge thirty or maybe more times an hour.the most often shape of sleep apnea is the obstructive kind. this is while enough air can't flow into someone's lungs through their mouth and nostril despite.http://rockhardfacts.com/iron-bull-edge/

    ReplyDelete
  3. Legumes are wonderful assets, but make certain to prepare dinner them well as legumes are frequently hard to digest for the general Orion Code public.a number of the same regulations for vegetarian cooking also apply for diabetic cooking. instead of animal merchandise and protein, the difficulty here is sugar. http://brainammoadvice.com/orion-code/

    ReplyDelete
  4. Every searching a means to give extra credibility to their existence and give someting unique to the world. one through her life Power Testo Blast styles's ardour and the other by using making a long term commitment. none of them did it by using reinventing the wheel, but taking current thoughts, successes and including. http://purenitrateadvice.com/power-testo-blast/

    ReplyDelete
  5. Any fumes so there may be no want for installing a ventilation gadget while those warmers are in use.this type of heaters is the Hyper Nitro Core most simple among the three. paraffin heaters need steady refilling and wick-trimming. they also want gas to run, thus, fumes are again discharged. http://purenitrateadvice.com/hyper-nitro-core/

    ReplyDelete
  6. Similarly the decreased volume bodybuilding workout cycle lets in joints and tendons to revel in a period of recovery this is Explosive Muscle in particular beneficial, because the ache that usually accompanies extended intervals of high quantity weight schooling exercising plans will lessen the quantity of weight used. http://t-rexmuscleadvice.com/explosive-muscle/

    ReplyDelete
  7. Will help in decreasing the accumulation of oily fat. due to this interest, the meals X Alpha Muscle is not chewed well and receives stuck within the frame.that is an critical tip to be followed in the approaches to reduce fat.for any fat discount diets, attempt and decrease the consumption of deep fried foods. http://www.healthsupreviews.com/x-alpha-muscle/

    ReplyDelete
  8. To paintings before giving up on it. in no way integrate a couple of natural breast enhancement pill, as this can lead to other troubles.a Nitro MXS number of the breast enhancement capsules that are in the marketplace comprise hormone-like substances and plant estrogens that mimic those observed clearly within the body. http://t-rexmuscleadvice.com/nitro-mxs/

    ReplyDelete
  9. There are many those who agree with that fasting is the fastest way for losing weight. but, fasting has the other effects and does extra X-Ripped damage than properly. starving does now not permit one to lose weight as the body waits for the subsequent meal. in this technique the frame stores the excess fat and as a result a person lands up gaining weight. http://musclegainfast.com/x-ripped/

    ReplyDelete
  10. You would like to get to recognise them on a non-public stage.song and take a look at everything. from headlines, to photographs Paravex Male Enhancement to your observe up emails, to different advertising strategies. make small adjustments as a time although. incramental adjustments over time can reason a spike for your paycheck. http://musclegainfast.com/paravex-male-enhancement/

    ReplyDelete
  11. You need all your nutrients and minerals. deficiencies have a tendency to snowball, affecting any quantity of metabolic procedures which Muscle XTX grow to be hard for you as a substitute quickly. horrific nutrition impacts the way you sense, your moods and a hazard to pay attention.on the other hand, the usage of a complete complement. http://www.healthsupreviews.com/muscle-xtx/

    ReplyDelete
  12. That such topics want to be dealt with with issue. it's also exciting to have a look at that there are several guys who are into the style DermEssence of lesbian movie making.another prominent lesbian moviemaker is shamim sarif, who has numerous movies to her credit score, each of which touches the topic of affection between two girls. http://purenitrateadvice.com/dermessence/

    ReplyDelete
  13. To retaining most useful levels of health.at the same time as many humans are interested in staying wholesome, latest surveys have advised My Megasize the yank populace are honestly extraordinarily blind to what it certainly takes to maintain us healthful. this can be due to the reality that now not enough information is available on fitness. http://musclegainfast.com/my-megasize/

    ReplyDelete
  14. In reality reverse loan in san diego is getting popular for enhancing social protection or for surprising clinical bills, home Testo Max enhancements and sometimes even for getting an vehicle. in addition, it offers loan to people above 62 years of age. with reverse loan san diego, one does no longer must pay returned loan in a single move alternatively pays it in monthly installments. http://musclegainfast.com/testo-max/

    ReplyDelete
  15. Patients who used biofeedback and relaxation techniques collectively manipulate their glucose stages much better than patients who're IRON BULL EDGE knowledgeable about pressure of their lives on my own. this combination helps to decrease levels of muscle anxiety, depression, and tension as nicely. http://purenitrateadvice.com/iron-bull-edge/

    ReplyDelete

Terima kasih atas minat anda untuk membaca posting saya, silahkan beri komentar pada posting ini.